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The authority value identifies the agent that issued the SID, and this agent is typically a Windows local system or a domain.
Subauthority values identify trustees relative to the issuing authority, and RIDs are simply a way for Windows to create unique SIDs based on a common base SID.
You can view the contents of a process’s token by double-clicking on the process in Process Explorer and switching to the Security page of the process properties dialog: When one of my processes opens an operating system object, like a file or registry key, the security subsystem executes a permission check that evaluates entries in the object’s access control list (ACL) that reference a SID included in the process’s token.
A similar check happens for remote logon sessions, which are the kind created by a “net use” of a remote computer’s share.
Even before you create the first user account on a system, Windows defines several built-in users and groups, including the Administrator and Guest accounts.
Instead of generating new random SIDs for these accounts, Windows ensures their uniqueness by simply appending a per-account unique number, called a (RID), to the machine SID.
Windows uses SIDs to represent not just machines, but all Security principals include machines, domain computer accounts, users and security groups.I took my conclusion to the Windows security and deployment teams and no one could come up with a scenario where two systems with the same machine SID, whether in a Workgroup or a Domain, would cause an issue.At that point the decision to retire New SID became obvious.If two machines have the same machine SID, then accounts or groups on those systems might have the same SID.It’s therefore obvious that having multiple computers with the same machine SID on a network poses a security risk, right? The reason that I began considering New SID for retirement is that, although people generally reported success with it on Windows Vista, I hadn’t fully tested it myself and I got occasional reports that some Windows component would fail after New SID was used.