The age of artefacts radioactive dating
The isotope that is created during the process (here argon-40) is called the daughter isotope.
The particles emitted in the process are what we call radiation. Now, try to link the clock characteristics you just listed to the characteristics of radioactive decay that appeal to geologists: Could you link these to your list of characteristics of a good clock?
You can probably see now that as the sample ages, fewer and fewer parent isotopes will be present in the rock, so the rock will be less and less radioactive. The radioactivity levels are indicated by wiggly arrows; green dots represent parent isotopes (here, K-40) and yellow dots represent daughter isotopes present in the rock at the indicated time after the formation of the rock.
Figure 3 shows a graphical representation of this example. Snapshots of the rock are taken after multiples of 1.25 billion years (the half-life time of the parent isotope K-40).
Geologists who want to date objects are interested in the isotopes that change identity as they undergo radioactive decay.
In other words, they change their number of protons during radioactive decay and turn into a different element.
Create a model of radioactive decay using dice and test its predictive power on dating the age of a hypothetical rock or artifact. That is what we encounter in our daily lives, right?
For example, the element potassium (which always has 19 protons in its nucleus) occurs in nature in three forms: an isotope with 39 nucleons (19 protons and 20 neutrons), one with 40 nucleons (19 protons and 21 neutrons), and one with 41 nucleons (19 protons and 22 neutrons) . They emit, or radiate, particles in their conversion to stability. Isotopes exhibit a range of radioactive decay processes.
Geologists use those radioactive isotopes to date volcanic ash or granite formations like the giant Half Dome in Yosemite National Park.
Yes, radioactive isotopes present in rocks and other ancient material decay atom by atom at a steady rate, much as clocks tick time away.
It is now time to explore why geologists are so interested in these radioactive decay processes as a means of dating objects. This example might help clarify the processes and terms just introduced: Looking at the parent isotope potassium-40 (abbreviated as K-40) that decays into the daughter isotope argon-40 (abbreviated as Ar-40), scientists measured the half-life time to be 1.25 billion years.
But before we do, can you list some characteristics a good clock should have? This means that half of the K-40 atoms existing today will have made the transformation to Ar-40 at some point during the next 1.25 billion years, no matter what weather they experience, pressure they undergo, or any other outside circumstances.